Methods for Precis

The following are the ways with the help of which you can abridge the passage given:

  1. Compression by Vocabulary
  2. Compression by Omission
  3. Compression by Shorter Construction

Let’s discuss each in detail:-

  1. Compression by Vocabulary
  2. One word for Many Words
  3. Agenda – Items of business to be considered at a meeting
  4. Amateur – One who plays a game for pleasure and not professionally
  5. Amnesty – General pardon of offenders
  6. Anarchy – The want of any government in any state
  7. Anonymous – A letter etc. bearing no name of the writer
  8. Antidote – A medicine to counteract the effect of poison
  9. Aristocracy – Government by the nobles
  10. Autocracy – An absolute government by one man
  11.  One who is recovering from illness – Convalescent
  12. One who is all powerful – Omnipotent
  13. One who is present everywhere – Omnipresent
  14. One who knows everything – Omniscient
  15. One who is easily deceived – Gullible
  16. One who does not make mistakes – Infallible
  17. One who can do anything for money – Mercenary
                                                                                         …..many other
  18. Phrase Substitution
  19. A cry in the wilderness – Useless cry
  20. A fish out of water – Restless
  21. A red letter day – Memorable day
  22. A snake in the grass – Hidden enemy
  23. By all means – definitely
  24. In a slow pace – Slowly
  25. By hook or by crook – Anyhow
  26. By leaps and bounds – Rapidly
  27. Damocles’ sword – Danger
  28. Hard and fast – Fixed/ Certain
  29. Men of letters – A learned man
  30. Out and out – thoroughly
  31. To add fuel to the flame – to inflame
  32. To stand in the way – To obstruct
  33. To throw dust in one’s eyes – To deceive

                                                                   ….many more

Suggestible:-

Please, increase the stock of Idioms and Phrases and One Word Substitutions as much as possible.

Some work-out problems:

  1. Jawahar Lal Nehru was a man of letters. He was in favour of the idea out and out that the country should have the control over all the productions and their distributions.

Note:

  • A man of letters – a learned man
  • Out and out – fully
  • The country should have the control over all the productions and their distributions – Socialist country.

                Summary:-

                     Learned Jawahar Lal Nehru fully favoured Socialism to be there in the country.

  • Afjal Kasab was a man who could do anything for money. He was sent by neighboring country-Pakistan so that he could spread terror among the people of the country.

Summary:-

Afjal Kasab was a mercenary sent by Pakistan to terrorize the country.

  • Two persons who were good at studying the elections were invited to the news channel. They were expected to analyze the elections which had been held some days before in the state Delhi.

Summary:-

Two psephologists were invited to the news channel to analyze the Delhi elections held some days before.

  • If we speak about the economy, India is facing today with perhaps its greatest emergency since it got Independence. The global financial cirisis in 2008-09 was a massive demand shock but our workers could still go to work, our firms were coming off years of strong growth, our financial system was largely sound and our government finances were healthy. None of this is true today as we fight the Corona Virus pandemic. Yet there is also no reason to despair. With the right resolve and priorities, and drawing on India’s many sources of strength, it can beat this virus back, and even set the stage for a much hopeful tomorrow.

Summary:-

Unlike the Global financial Crisis in 2008-09 when all activities were going on well, India is facing today its greatest emergency since Independence owing to Corona Virus. However, India hopes to come out of this situation soon.

Exercises:-

  1. Two years ago, Mr. Shah was working in the same office with me. He abstained from alcohol and never favoured such food that is obtained from animals. Yesterday, I came across him after months. He is still a man with a lot of glow on his face. He is still as jovial as ever before. This is all due to balanced diet and life.
  2. All the living beings that live in water have some special features. The features make them able to live in water. Let’s take an example of a fish. Its gill slits enable it to get Oxygen out of water, its fins help it swim in it, and its tail helps it change directions in it.
  3. In the world, the number of such people that believe that nothing can be known about God is increase in a fast manner. This is only because of the fact that Science has developed challenging even nature and natural phenomena. People make many ifs and buts to establish the existence of God. They believe in what they see around them; but they do not restrict others to go to temples or churches. They consider Science and Philosophy as two different things.

So, friends, this is all about compressing the given sentences by using the stock of Vocabulary. Hence, increase its stock as much as possible.

Now, let’s discuss the second way under the title ‘Compression by Omission’.

  • Compression by Omission
  • Verbosity (too many words)
  • Circumlocution (round-about statement)
  • Pleonasm (use of superfluous words)
  • Tautology (Pointless repetition)
  • Figurative Expression (Decorative Expressions)

Now, let’s discuss each in detail:-

  • Verbosity (Too many words)
Expressions with verbosityCompressed Expressions
He walked away in a very hasty manner. He was made the recipient of a present in the shape of a watch which was made of gold. We regret exceedingly that we could not attend the party which had been scheduled at 9 o’ clock in the evening.He walked away hastily. He was presented with a gold watch.     We regret at not attending the party scheduled at 9pm.
  • Circumlocution (Round-about statement)
CircumlocutionCompressed Expressions
He has gone a land from where no traveler returns. The sage of Sabarmati spearheaded the ‘Quit India Movement’. I brought home a glass tube for measuring temperature. This is a letter in reference to the case which was filed a couple of days ago.He has died. Mahatma Gandhi spearheaded the ‘Quit India Movement’. I brought home a thermometer.     This letter is about the case filed two days ago.
  • Pleonasm (use of superfluous words)
Superfluous ExpressionsCompressed Expressions
You are kindly requested to affix your signature where it is needed. You need not necessarily come tomorrow. He returned back to that place from where he had arrived.You are requested to sign where needed.   You need not come tomorrow. He returned whence he arrived.
  • Tautology (pointless repetition)
TautologyCompressed Expressions
This is clearly evident. We are all united together to fight against COVID-19. I have seen it with my own eyes. I do not like living in a place which is full of din and bustle. The English left the country bag and baggage.This is evident. We are all united to fight against COVID-19.   I have seen it. I do not like living in a noisy place.   The English left the country completely.  
  • Figures of Speech (Decorative Expressions)
Figurative ExpressionsCompressed Expressions
The face of my beloved is like a red rose. Full fathom five, thy father lie. My life is like a fruit laden tree which does not feed on its fruit. Let the dust settle and then I will come into the limelight.My beloved’s face is very beautiful. Your father is buried. My life is for others.     I will come out after the normalcy.
  • Compression by Shorter Construction
  • The patient is so weak that he cannot walk in a proper way.

Compressed form –

The patient is too weak to walk properly.

  • Bangala Desh is as developed as if not more developed than Pakistan.

Compressed form-

Bangala Desh and Pakistan are equally developed.

  • The Principal saw all those pupils who had been playing on the ground for more than two hours.

Compressed form-

The Principal saw all those pupils playing on the ground for more than two hours.

  • Everybody knows that the earth revolves round the sun.

Compressed form-

The earth is known to revolve round the sun.

  • Two terrorists entered the mosque. They started spreading bullets at the congregation. They killed eight of them. They injured many of them.

Compressed form- Two terrorists entered the mosque and started spreading bullets at the congregation killing eight of them injuring many of them.

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